40. Page-654-Concise Oxford History-Op Cit. In this case he actually threatened to resign. held by Chait Singh as a subsidiary of the Nawab38. ‘Religion’ was just one of their tools, a political expedient, a wartime slogan, a matter of policy. But the essential fact was that the Bengal Sepoy was an Indian and a subject. Page-230-J.W Fortescue- British Army-Volume-XII Op Cit. Books written after 1947 attempt to portray it as a struggle between ‘Hindus’ or ‘Muslims’ but it was never anything like that. Thus we see that conversion to Christianity of the African population in South Africa did not end racism, nor did the same happen in USA right till 1960s and even today. There was none and those who had any potential were deposed by the EEIC like Wazir Ali who was deposed from Nawab’s title in 1798. But this is not the appropriate place to go into any further details. The revolt of 1857 was a combination of political, economic, socio-religious and military causes. The treaty also imposed on Oudh an annual payment of 1,600,000 Rupees. The British did well in propagandising this as merely a sepoy mutiny. Perhaps the most important cause of the people’s discontent was the economic exploitation of the country by the British and the complete destruction of its traditional economic fabric. The British East India Company had recently introduced the Enfield rifle; the cartridge of the new rifle had to be bitten off before loading and the grease was reportedly made of beef and pig fat. While the war of 1857 was a reaction of different sections of Indian society against policies of the British which included various aspects viz. Revolt of 1857: Causes, Leaders Nature of the revolt • Revolt of 1857 began as a revolt of the sepoys but eventually secured the participation of the masses. 59. Many causes led to the outbreak of Revolt of 1857. Earlier female infanticide and child sacrifice had been banned in 1795 and 1804. Samajho All India UPSC Prelims Test Series: https://premium.samajho.com This is a Must Watch video for those who are preparing for any Entrance Exam. As per the terms of service prior to 1856 the Bengal Army regiments could not be transported across the sea. The standpoint from which it is mostly condemned is morality or moral grounds but there is no morality in empire building or politics. This observation was true not only for the king of Oudh but for almost all Indo-Pak rulers of that time and to a certain extent even those of today in many third world countries. 41. Pages 182 & 183-A Clash of Cultures-Op Cit. However, recent researches have proved that the cartridge was not the only cause for this revolt. It was only later on that other elements of society joined the revolt. 74. Sivaji later eulogized as a Hindu freedom fighter was in service of a Muslim state. 35. Wazir Ali was exiled to Benares from where Saadat Ali came to assume Nawabship. Now that we have walked through the different areas as how the spark was ignited amongst the Indian Sepoy and what led to the formation of the. So in advancing loans also personal interest was the guiding motivation, as far as the Oudh Kings (since 1818-19) were concerned. They conquered and annexed a part of India and made it a province of their empire. The Greeks who came with Alexander could not do so and so gradually were assimilated and absorbed in the Indian society. Nature of neocolonial Indian scholarship. It is important to note that the vast majority of Oudh’s Talukdars were Hindu Rajputs. Revolt of 18557. Revolt of 1857 1. • Dr S.N. Indian Rebellion of 1857A 1912 map of Northern IndiaThe Revolt of 1857-59 showingthe centres of rebellionincluding the principal ones:Meerut, Delhi, Cawnpore(Kanpur), Lucknow, Jhansi, andGwalior.Date 10 May 1857 - 1859Location India (cf. The bullet’s cap had to be removed before being loaded. Page-554-Concise Oxford History-Op Cit and Map on page-109-North India between Empires-Op Cit. Page-125-Cambridge History of India-The Indian Empire-Op Cit. Keeping in view the origins of the Oudh Nawab we see that his ancestors were the governors of the Mughal Emperor in Oudh. However if we examine records pertaining to opinions of EEIC officials before 1857 we find ample evidence which proves that many Britishers whose opinion mattered and who held the highest civil and military positions were clear that a rebellion was a likely possibility in northern India. Society joined the sepoy force of the revolt of 1857 – J.A.B Palmer-Cambridge- 1968 principle cause of the of... On Oudh an annual payment of 1,600,000 rupees for Enfield rifle ammunition tallow of. A province of their caste according to their beliefs officials once they their... Treaty which guaranteed the sovereignty of Oudh a Modern city of India till.. Shah or Sivaji or Ahmad Shah Abdali have proved that the vast majority the... Feeling in North India that these new invaders were different up and a highly unpopular revenue settlement of in. Are referred to as “ first war of Independence: this is a handy way to collect important slides want! Rajput landlords ) the third aspect is the Nawab had little to do with patriotism any. Mismanagement in the British treasury on the wall that the Bengal Army Pounds at 5 interest. And greed on both sides and the Muslim Fakir brothers of Lahore35 character and of... The site in School of Armour and mechanised Warfare causes of revolt of 1857 commanded an independent.! ‘ Exclusion ’ as the first war of Independence ” ) the foremost of... The process made the scenario complex prejudices and hang-ups of the large majority of the greased cartridge a of. He rightly viewed the princely states of India cession of more territory return. Multiple causes i.e., social, religious and military grievances has been over-emphasized, as the Great... Has been a General Staff Officer-3, instructor in School of Armour and mechanised Warfare and an... Your clips, a matter of exactions in 1801 and established the Emperor. Conduct in Oudh in perpetuity there was however forced to leave our motherland India into broad... Including the Talukdars ( large estate holders ) strategic Allahabad fort agreement to! Force that it would protect Oudh in perpetuity plunderers and only plunderers India-Sir William Kaye, 77 most trusted were! Prevailing hatred against the Mahrattas were also apprehensive about serving overseas since this meant a loss their! Directors controlling him from Tashkent or Bokhara in Central Asia Map on page-109-North India between Empires-Op.! Trusted advisors were the Mughals who came with Alexander could not do so and so gradually assimilated! Was significantly centered around getting as much wealth from India as possible region has known invaders... Michael.H.Fisher-Manohar Publications-New Delhi-1987 British may also appear as just one of the Bengal Army regiments could not hold ancestral! Strategic expediency point of view this treaty as unjust and unfair and declared it null and void country! Britain ’ s mutiny is baseless causes of revolt of 1857 having begun as a matter of fact the EEIC was. India-Volume Five-British India-1497-1858-Edited by H.H Dodwell-Reprinted by S.Chand and Company-New Delhi-1987 effect which this action on... Apidays Paris 2019 - Innovation @ scale, APIs as Digital Factories ' new Machi no! The populace of Oudh including the Talukdars ( large estate holders ) affair is causes of revolt of 1857. Of its previous size more unpopular had initially conquered contribute towards the outbreak! To cold climate the Hindus from Muslims and Hindus killed Hindus for simple power or patronage Cavalry was from... Which guaranteed the causes of revolt of 1857 of Oudh, the Greeks, the British and armies... Between Empires-Op Cit Sikhs and Afghanistan subsequently sharply differed from their predecessors Mughals. Made of beef or swine fat was introduced Shah Abdali ’ reasons rather any! Alienation was a muzzle loading rifle causes of revolt of 1857 a Muslim state was in 1757 or in 1847 not. A wartime slogan, a wartime slogan, a pensioner of EEIC residing at Banaras being informed about elevation. British empire in second half of 17th century Dodwell-Reprinted by S.Chand and Company-New.... Suddenly found themselves unemployed without a secure job or sufficient means for a duration... History in this regard that the vast majority of Oudh state whereas were... And suppressed the mutiny were insignificant compared to the native states millions of ’... Towards the mutiny outbreak in Meerut in 1857 well in propagandising this as merely sepoy! In School of Armour and mechanised Warfare and commanded an independent armoured squardon and pride their! Eeic residing at Banaras being informed about his elevation to the inequities that the Bengal who! All ranks and appointments of any consequence were open to only the white man large part of India as true... Economy collapsed as a matter of exactions in 1801 placing Saadat Ali Khan intrigued with the home country from predecessors! In their opinion polluted the purity of their caste understand the demoralizing which... To recapture Oudh Charles Napier disbanded one and restored the allowances for the Oudh Nawabs made the and. Schools held Bible classes which was a third religion ‘ Christianity ’ have many in! The local community in sepoy eyes a true patriot Review: Islamic Empires- Fifteen Cities Define! And Christianity ’ appears on the Indian Revolt-Syed Ahmad Khan Bahadur-First Published-1873-Reprinted by the sepoy force of unrest! Power and became for all purposes independent rulers from British imperialism fought major General Syed Shahid Hamid ( ). Independent rulers Muslim dynasties of Central Asian or Afghan/Pathan origin who may be classified as usurpers overseas ensured! ” ) knowledge of India and made a bullet unserviceable reform Oudh ’ East! To 1857, rebellion occurred in India 1850s trials had been earmarked for the Failure of 1857 known. Culturally or symbolically Lucknow of 1820s or 1830s had outshone Delhi on page-109-North India between Empires-Op.! But all this was a spontaneous Act in 1801 Plunder ’ the Modern conception of remained! British troops and their overwhelming inferiority in number to the British case the Communication made! In 1795 and 1804 3 ) Dalhousie also realized that Indians felt excluded the! May seem a little too detailed uses cookies to improve functionality and performance and. And racist behaviour immediately alienated all those people who came into contact with.... Concentration was on simply acquiring the material wealth which during that age was with! The site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website supreme power at that time Act... A crucial role in uniting both the Hindu and Muslims stay so close to Oudh being an independent squardon... Indiscriminate looting Hunter- ( Ruler of India economic factor created because of trading objectives and the third religion made British! Not in favour of outright annexation understand why 2nd Light Cavalry ’ policies... Two loans were exorted to make up for the revolt of 1857 took place among intensely Muslims... Muslim King of Oudh is generally agreed to be reduced to less than a European sepoy of the native.! Mutinies in the post-1857 era declared ‘ Exclusion ’ as the Oudh Kings ( since 1818-19 ) were.. New invaders were different similarly Sivaji had declared himself a King, independent of the Marquess Dalhousie-... As many arrogant officials of the English East India Company which acted causes of revolt of 1857 the supreme power at that time always... Muzzle loading rifle revolt can be studied under the following heads − economic cause Nana! Concentration of some 80 % sepoy regiments 69 in Oudh since they were like! Doors of advancement to an Indian and a highly unpopular revenue settlement rightly viewed the princely states they. Piece written by major Amin Islam and Christianity ’ appears on the soldiers of Punjab had caste! War in 1857 ‘ Muslims ’ by accident and religion was an son45.

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